At the present time in the world in operation for about 400 million cars and their number is continuously increasing, respectively, are growing and harmful emissions into the atmosphere.
Protection of the air basin from pollution.
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Protection of the air basin from pollution has become one of the most important and difficult challenges facing mankind. Particular attention is paid to this issue in our country. The solution to this problem is solved in three ways: neutralization of emissions, changes in fuel composition and development of new methods of energy conversion. In the first phase was mainly used and still uses the first path.
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Thermal power plants are equipped with high chimneys to disperse emissions into the "higher layers of the atmosphere, the dust collector to collect the ash from the combustion products, filters and absorbers for the sorption of several gases, and so n.
Currently, scientists are developing methods of using fuel Power Chemical. The essence of these methods is in the preliminary chemical processing of fuel, removal of sulfur and its division into factions. Some fractions could serve as a valuable raw material for chemical industry, and other factions - the fuel for power plants. Refined fuel combustion will produce significantly fewer harmful emissions.
Sulfur and nitrogen oxides that are acidic in nature are neutralized by substances of basic character. To neutralize the sulfur dioxide is used lime, limestone, magnesium oxide and other substances.
Nitrogen oxides are neutralized with soda, lime, ammonia and other substances.
Nitrogen oxides are detoxified by the method of catalytic reduction.
Sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide can be oxidized by catalysts.
For the oxidation of carbon monoxide in a car offer converters that can be installed in the exhaust pipes and a porous nozzle with a catalyst such as palladium. Harmful gases are absorbed by absorbents, activated carbon. However, neutralization of combustion products is very expensive, and in the future, apparently, will be applied other methods of protecting the air basin.